La criba de Eratóstenes es un método para hallar los números primos hasta un cierto número n. El método consiste en señalar un número primo e ir tachando sus múltiplos, por ejemplo, empezando por el 2 tacho todos sus múltiplos hasta n. Al final, lo que quedan son los números primos que hay hasta ese número n.
Lo que te propongo en este vídeo es hacerlo de un modo más original y divertido. Espero que te guste y te animes a probarlo con tus alumnos:
Eratóstenes (Cirene, c. 284 a.J.C. – Alejandría, c. 192 a.J.C.) fue un astrónomo, geógrafo, matemático y filósofo griego.
Eratóstenes cultivó no sólo las ciencias, sino también la poesía, la filología y la filosofía. Vivió en Atenas hasta que fue llamado a Alejandría (245 a.J.C.) para educar a los hijos de Tolomeo III y para dirigir la biblioteca de la ciudad.
Fue célebre en matemáticas por la criba que lleva su nombre, utilizada para hallar los números primos, y por su mesolabio, instrumento de cálculo usado para resolver la media proporcional.
Pero Eratóstenes es particularmente recordado por haber establecido por primera vez la longitud de la circunferencia de la Tierra (252.000 estadios, equivalentes a 40.000 kilómetros) con un error de sólo 90 kilómetros respecto a las estimaciones actuales.
También calculó la oblicuidad de la eclíptica por medio de la observación de las diferencias existentes entre las altitudes del Sol durante los solsticios de verano e invierno, y además elaboró el primer mapa del mundo basado en meridianos de longitud y paralelos de latitud. Al final de su vida se quedó ciego, lo que le llevó al suicidio ante la imposibilidad de proseguir con sus lecturas.
Ruiza, M., Fernández, T. y Tamaro, E. (2004). Biografia de Eratóstenes. En Biografías y Vidas. La enciclopedia biográfica en línea. Barcelona (España). Recuperado de https://www.biografiasyvidas.com/biografia/e/eratostenes.htm el 3 de octubre de 2020.
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